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Título : PORCINE COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICAS: A 60K SNP STORY
Autor : AGUIRRE RIOFRIO, EDGAR LENIN
BURGOS-PAZ, W.
SOUZA, CA
MEGENS, HJ
RAMAYO CALDAS, Y
MELO, M
LEMAS-FLORES, C
CAEL, E
SOTO, HW
MARTINEZ, R.
ALVAREZ, LA
IÑIGUEZ, V.
REVIDATTI, MA
MARTINEZ-LOPEZ, OR
LLAMBI, S
ESTEVE-CODINE, A
RODRIGUEZ, MC.
CROOLJMANS, RPMA
PAIVA, SR.
SCHOOK, LB.
Palabras clave : pig
adaptation
Americas
phylogeography
altitude
selection
Fecha de publicación : 19-dic-2012
Resumen : The pig, Sus scrofa, is a foreign species to the American continent. Although pigs originally introduced in the Americas should be related to those from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary islands, the phylogeny of current creole pigs that now populate the continent is likely to be very complex. Because of the extreme climates that America harbors, these populations also provide a unique example of a fast evolutionary phenomenon of adaptation. Here, we provide a genome wide study of these issues by genotyping, with a 60k SNP chip, 206 village pigs sampled across 14 countries and 183 pigs from outgroup breeds that are potential founders of the American populations, including wild boar, Iberian, international and Chinese breeds. Results show that American village pigs are primarily of European ancestry, although the observed genetic landscape is that of a complex conglomerate. There was no correlation between genetic and geographical distances, neither continent wide nor when analyzing specific areas. Most populations showed a clear admixed structure where the Iberian pig was not necessarily the main component, illustrating how international breeds, but also Chinese pigs, have contributed to extant genetic composition of American village pigs. We also observe that many genes related to the cardiovascular system show an increased differentiation between altiplano and genetically related pigs living near sea level.
Descripción : The pig, Sus scrofa, originated in Southeast Asia ca 5.3 3.5 MYA (Groenen et al., 2012) the species subsequently colonized the rest of Eurasia and North Africa (Larson et al., 2005) but was absent from America before European colonization. Pigs, together with other livestock species like sheep, cattle or goats, were first introduced by Spaniards and Portuguese from the very beginning of colonization. Actually, the first recorded event of pig import into the new continent dates as early as the second Columbus trip (Crossby, 2003). On the Portuguese side, the first historical evidence of pig introduction dates from 1532 by Martim Afonso de Souza (Mariante and Cavalcante, 2006). According to Crossby (2003), ‘the pigs adapted the quickest to the Caribbean environment’, and the relevance of the pig as a source of meat from the very early days of conquest is well acknowledged (Elliot, 2007).
URI : http://dspace.unl.edu.ec/jspui/handle/123456789/291
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